Intelligence is crucial by reason of its impact on many human behaviours. Intelligence entails the skill required to retain, apply knowledge, and resolve problems beyond the common brainpower.
Every day, consciously or unconsciously, we all exhibit one form of intelligence or the other like the ability to organize our emotions and that of others (emotional intelligence), expressing ourselves (linguistic intelligence), deciphering sounds and tone of voices (musical intelligence), etc.
Intelligence appears to be one of the most talked-about topics in Psychology, yet, there is no agreed definition of intelligence. Psycnet.apa.org defines Intelligence as “the ability to undertake activities that are characterized by difficulty, complexity, abstractness, economy, adaptiveness to a goal, social value and the emergence of original and to maintain such activities under conditions that demand a concentration of energy and resistance to emotional forces”
Common terms associated with psychology include planning, creativity, critical thinking, logic, self-awareness, problem-solving, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, etc (Wikipedia.com). Intelligence in humans is called Human Intelligence while Intelligence in a machine is referred to as Artificial Intelligence.
To my mind, a human intellectual competence must entail a set of skills of problem-solving – enabling the individual to resolve genuine problems or difficulties that he or she encounters and when appropriate, to create an effective product – and must also entail the potential of finding or creating problems – and thereby laying the groundwork for the acquisition of new knowledge
– Howard Gardner.
Components of Intelligence
The study of intelligence is important by reason of its impact on human behaviours. According to opentectbc.ca, there are five components that improve our intelligence (creativity).
- Expertise – Being good and knowledgeable at what you do.
- Risk-taking – Willingness to take on new potential risk approaches.
- Intrinsic Interest – Doing what you love and loving what you do. (passion)
- Imaginative Thinking – Thinking out of the box.
- Creative Working Environment – Having the right people to work with and challenge you
According to blog.adioma.com, American psychologist, Howard Gardener, in 1983, categorized intelligence into nine (9) types as below:
1. Spatial Intelligence (picture smart)
Spatial intelligence may be defined as the ability to think and visualize the world in 3D (three dimensions). Graphic and artistic skills, mental imagery are skills exhibited in spatial intelligence. This type of intelligence can be seen in graphics designers, sculptors, fashion designers, sailors, architects, etc.
2. Naturalist Intelligence (nature smart)
Naturalist intelligence is about our understanding of living things and reading nature. It finds expression in our choices and sensitivity to our environment. For example, our individual preferences on cars, kinds of fabric, houses, etc.
3. Musical Intelligence (sound smart)
This is the ability to recognize, create, and discern sound’s pitch, tone, rhymes, and timbre. It is often demonstrated by musicians, vocalists, musical composers and conductors, sensitive listeners, etc.
4. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence (number smart)
Logical intelligence is the skill employed when carrying out mathematical operations, calculations, experiments, propositions, and making hypotheses. It is an intelligence commonly exhibited among scientists, mathematicians, and detectives.
5. Existential Intelligence (life smart)
Existential intelligence is a kind that handles the questions of why we live, and why we die. It seeks to find our overall meaning for our existence and purpose for living.
6. Interpersonal intelligence (people smart)
Interpersonal Intelligence is the capacity to understand the emotions, intentions, motivations, and desires of other people. It enables us to interact and communicate effectively in our interaction with others
7. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence (body smart)
Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence is about how we harmonize our minds with our bodies. It is the mastery in engaging in some physical skills, manipulating, and perfecting these skills through our mind-body union. It commonly exhibited by Athletes, dancers, surgeons, etc.
8. Linguistic Intelligence (word smart)
Linguistic intelligence is about finding the right words to express our thoughts and feelings in words/language. It is the ability to express and appreciate the meaning of words through the use of e language. Linguistic intelligence is commonly evident in writers, poets, public speakers, novelists, journalists, etc.
9. Intra-Personal Intelligence (self smart)
Interpersonal Intelligence is the ability to understand oneself and control one’s emotions (thoughts and feelings). It is about appreciating one’s self, and evident in psychologists, spiritual leaders, and philosophers.
Emotional Intelligence, according to opentectbc.ca refers to the ability to identify, assess, manage, and control one’s emotions. People who are better able to regulate their behaviors and emotions are also more successful in their personal and social encounters.
Emotional intelligence is a blending of Howard Gardner’s interpersonal intelligence (sensing people’s feelings and motives) and intrapersonal intelligence (understanding yourself, what you feel, and what you want).
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